Type::Params

sub signature validation using Type::Tiny type constraints and coercions

Synopsis

 use v5.20;
 use strict;
 use warnings;
 use experimental 'signatures';
 
 package Horse {
   use Moo;
   use Types::Standard qw( Object );
   use Type::Params -sigs;
   use namespace::autoclean;
   
   ...;   # define attributes, etc
   
   signature_for add_child => (
     method     => 1,
     positional => [ Object ],
   );
   
   sub add_child ( $self, $child ) {
     
     push @{ $self->children }, $child;
     
     return $self;
   }
 }
 
 package main;
 
 my $boldruler = Horse->new;
 
 $boldruler->add_child( Horse->new );
 
 $boldruler->add_child( 123 );   # dies (123 is not an Object!)

Status

This module is covered by the Type-Tiny stability policy.

Description

This documents the details of the Type::Params package. Type::Tiny::Manual is a better starting place if you're new.

Type::Params uses Type::Tiny constraints to validate the parameters to a sub. It takes the slightly unorthodox approach of separating validation into two stages:

  1. Compiling the parameter specification into a coderef; then
  2. Using the coderef to validate parameters.

The first stage is slow (it might take a couple of milliseconds), but you only need to do it the first time the sub is called. The second stage is fast; according to my benchmarks faster even than the XS version of Params::Validate.

Modern API

The modern API can be exported using:

 use Type::Params -sigs;

Or:

 use Type::Params -v2;

Or by requesting functions by name:

 use Type::Params qw( signature signature_for );

signature( %spec )

The signature function takes a specification for your function's signature and returns a coderef. You then call the coderef in list context, passing @_ to it. The coderef will check, coerce, and apply other procedures to the values, and return the tidied values, or die with an error.

The usual way of using it is:

 sub your_function {
   state $signature = signature( ... );
   my ( $arg1, $arg2, $arg3 ) = $signature->( @_ );
   
   ...;
 }

Perl allows a slightly archaic way of calling coderefs without using parentheses, which may be slightly faster at the cost of being more obscure:

 sub your_function {
   state $signature = signature( ... );
   my ( $arg1, $arg2, $arg3 ) = &$signature;
   
   ...;
 }

If you need to support Perl 5.8, which didn't have the state keyword:

 my $__your_function_sig;
 sub your_function {
   $__your_function_sig ||= signature( ... );
   my ( $arg1, $arg2, $arg3 ) = $__your_function_sig->( @_ );
   
   ...;
 }

One important thing to note is how the signature is only compiled into a coderef the first time your function gets called, and thereafter will be reused.

Signature Specification Options

The signature specification is a hash which must contain either a positional, named, or multiple key indicating whether your function takes positional parameters, named parameters, or supports multiple calling conventions, but may also include other options.

positional ArrayRef

This is conceptually a list of type constraints, one for each positional parameter. For example, a signature for a function which accepts two integers:

 signature( positional => [ Int, Int ] )

However, each type constraint is optionally followed by a hashref of options which affect that parameter. For example:

 signature( positional => [
   Int, { default => 40 },
   Int, { default =>  2 },
 ] )

Type constraints can instead be given as strings, which will be looked up using dwim_type from Type::Utils.

 signature( positional => [
   'Int', { default => 40 },
   'Int', { default =>  2 },
 ] )

See the section below for more information on parameter options.

Optional parameters must follow required parameters, and can be specified using either the Optional parameterizable type constraint, the optional parameter option, or by providing a default.

 signature( positional => [
   Optional[Int],
   Int, { optional => !!1 },
   Int, { default  => 42 },
 ] )

A single slurpy parameter may be provided at the end, using the Slurpy parameterizable type constraint, or the slurpy parameter option:

 signature( positional => [
   Int,
   Slurpy[ ArrayRef[Int] ],
 ] )

 signature( positional => [
   Int,
   ArrayRef[Int], { slurpy => !!1 },
 ] )

The positional option can also be abbreviated to pos.

So signature( pos => [...] ) can be used instead of the longer signature( positional => [...] ).

If a signature uses positional parameters, the values are returned by the coderef as a list:

 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature( positional => [ Num, Num ] );
   my ( $num1, $num2 ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   return $num1 + $num2;
 }
 
 say add_numbers( 2, 3 );   # says 5
named ArrayRef

This is conceptually a list of pairs of names and type constraints, one name+type pair for each positional parameter. For example, a signature for a function which accepts two integers:

 signature( named => [ foo => Int, bar => Int ] )

However, each type constraint is optionally followed by a hashref of options which affect that parameter. For example:

 signature( named => [
   foo => Int, { default => 40 },
   bar => Int, { default =>  2 },
 ] )

Type constraints can instead be given as strings, which will be looked up using dwim_type from Type::Utils.

 signature( named => [
   foo => 'Int', { default => 40 },
   bar => 'Int', { default =>  2 },
 ] )

Optional and slurpy parameters are allowed, but unlike positional parameters, they do not need to be at the end.

See the section below for more information on parameter options.

If a signature uses named parameters, the values are returned by the coderef as an object:

 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature( named => [ num1 => Num, num2 => Num ] );
   my ( $arg ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   return $arg->num1 + $arg->num2;
 }
 
 say add_numbers(   num1 => 2, num2 => 3   );   # says 5
 say add_numbers( { num1 => 2, num2 => 3 } );   # also says 5
named_to_list ArrayRef|Bool

The named_to_list option is ignored for signatures using positional parameters, but for signatures using named parameters, allows them to be returned in a list instead of as an object:

 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature(
     named         => [ num1 => Num, num2 => Num ],
     named_to_list => !!1,
   );
   my ( $num1, $num2 ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   return $num1 + $num2;
 }
 
 say add_numbers(   num1 => 2, num2 => 3   );   # says 5
 say add_numbers( { num1 => 2, num2 => 3 } );   # also says 5

You can think of add_numbers above as a function which takes named parameters from the outside, but receives positional parameters on the inside.

You can use an arrayref to specify the order the paramaters will be returned in. (By default they are returned in the order they were defined in.)

 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature(
     named         => [ num1 => Num, num2 => Num ],
     named_to_list => [ qw( num2 num1 ) ],
   );
   my ( $num2, $num1 ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   return $num1 + $num2;
 }
head Int|ArrayRef

head provides an additional list of non-optional, positional parameters at the start of @_. This is often used for method calls. For example, if you wish to define a signature for:

 $object->my_method( foo => 123, bar => 456 );

You could write it as this:

 sub my_method {
   state $signature = signature(
     head    => [ Object ],
     named   => [ foo => Optional[Int], bar => Optional[Int] ],
   );
   my ( $self, $arg ) = $signature->( @_ );
   
   ...;
 }

If head is set as a number instead of an arrayref, it is the number of additional arguments at the start:

 sub my_method {
   state $signature = signature(
     head    => 1,
     named   => [ foo => Optional[Int], bar => Optional[Int] ],
   );
   my ( $self, $arg ) = $signature->( @_ );
   
   ...;
}

In this case, no type checking is performed on those additional arguments; it is just checked that they exist.

tail Int|ArrayRef

A tail is like a head except that it is for arguments at the end of @_.

 sub my_method {
   state $signature = signature(
     head    => [ Object ],
     named   => [ foo => Optional[Int], bar => Optional[Int] ],
     tail    => [ CodeRef ],
   );
   my ( $self, $arg, $callback ) = $signature->( @_ );
   
   ...;
 }
 
 $object->my_method( foo => 123, bar => 456, sub { ... } );
method Bool|TypeTiny

While head can be used for method signatures, a more declarative way is to set method => 1.

If you wish to be specific that this is an object method, intended to be called on blessed objects only, then you may use method => Object, using the Object type from Types::Standard. If you wish to specify that it's a class method, then use method => Str, using the Str type from Types::Standard. (method => ClassName is perhaps clearer, but it's a slower check.)

 sub my_method {
   state $signature = signature(
     method  => 1,
     named   => [ foo => Optional[Int], bar => Optional[Int] ],
   );
   my ( $self, $arg ) = $signature->( @_ );
   
   ...;
 }

If method is true (or a type constraint) then any parameter defaults which are coderefs will be called as methods.

description Str

This is the description of the coderef that will show up in stack traces. It defaults to "parameter validation for X" where X is the caller sub name. Usually the default will be fine.

package Str

The package of the sub whose paramaters we're supposed to be checking. As well as showing up in stack traces, it's used by dwim_type if you provide any type constraints as strings.

The default is probably fine, but if you're wrapping signature so that you can check signatures on behalf of another package, you may need to provide it.

subname Str

The name of the sub whose paramaters we're supposed to be checking.

The default is probably fine, but if you're wrapping signature so that you can check signatures on behalf of another package, you may need to provide it.

caller_level Int

If you're wrapping signature so that you can check signatures on behalf of another package, then setting caller_level to 1 (or more, depending on the level of wrapping!) may be an alternative to manually setting the package and subname.

on_die Maybe[CodeRef]

Usually when your coderef hits an error, it will throw an exception, which is a blessed Error::TypeTiny object.

If you provide an on_die coderef, then instead the Error::TypeTiny object will be passed to it. If the on_die coderef returns something, then whatever it returns will be returned as your signature's parameters.

 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature(
     positional => [ Num, Num ],
     on_die     => sub {
       my $error = shift;
       print "Existential crisis: $error\n";
       exit( 1 );
     },
   );
   my ( $num1, $num2 ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   return $num1 + $num2;
 }
 
 say add_numbers();   # has an existential crisis

This is probably not very useful.

goto_next Bool|CodeLike

This can be used for chaining coderefs. If you understand on_die, it's more like an "on_live".

 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature(
     positional => [ Num, Num ],
     goto_next  => sub {
       my ( $num1, $num2 ) = @_;
       
       return $num1 + $num2;
     },
   );
   
   my $sum = $sig->( @_ );
   return $sum;
 }
 
 say add_numbers( 2, 3 );   # says 5

If set to a true boolean instead of a coderef, has a slightly different behaviour:

 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature(
     positional => [ Num, Num ],
     goto_next  => !!1,
   );
   
   my $sum = $sig->(
     sub { return $_[0] + $_[1] },
     @_,
   );
   return $sum;
 }
 
 say add_numbers( 2, 3 );   # says 5

This looks strange. Why would this be useful? Well, it works nicely with Moose's around keyword.

 sub add_numbers {
   return $_[1] + $_[2];
 }
 
 around add_numbers => signature(
   method     => !!1,
   positional => [ Num, Num ],
   goto_next  => !!1,
   package    => __PACKAGE__,
   subname    => 'add_numbers',
 );
 
 say __PACKAGE__->add_numbers( 2, 3 );   # says 5

Note the way around works in Moose is that it expects a wrapper coderef as its final argument. That wrapper coderef then expects to be given a reference to the original function as its first parameter.

This can allow, for example, a role to provide a signature wrapping a method defined in a class.

This is kind of complex, and you're unlikely to use it, but it's been proven useful for tools that integrate Type::Params with Moose-like method modifiers.

strictness Bool|Str

If you set strictness to a false value (0, undef, or the empty string), then certain signature checks will simply never be done. The initial check that there's the correct number of parameters, plus type checks on parameters which don't coerce can be skipped.

If you set it to a true boolean (i.e. 1) or do not set it at all, then these checks will always be done.

Alternatively, it may be set to the quoted fully-qualified name of a Perl global variable or a constant, and that will be compiled into the coderef as a condition to enable strict checks.

 state $signature = signature(
   strictness => '$::CHECK_TYPES',
   positional => [ Int, ArrayRef ],
 );
 
 # Type checks are skipped
 {
   local $::CHECK_TYPES = 0;
   my ( $number, $list ) = $signature->( {}, {} );
 }
 
 # Type checks are performed
 {
   local $::CHECK_TYPES = 1;
   my ( $number, $list ) = $signature->( {}, {} );
 }

A recommended use of this is with Devel::StrictMode.

 use Devel::StrictMode qw( STRICT );
 
 state $signature = signature(
   strictness => STRICT,
   positional => [ Int, ArrayRef ],
 );
multiple ArrayRef

This option allows your signature to support multiple calling conventions. Each entry in the array is an alternative signature, as a hashref:

 state $signature = signature(
   multiple => [
     {
       positional => [ ArrayRef, Int ],
     },
     {
       named      => [ array => ArrayRef, index => Int ],
       named_to_list => 1,
     },
   ],
 );

That signature will allow your function to be called as:

 your_function( $arr, $ix )
 your_function( array => $arr, index => $ix )
 your_function( { array => $arr, index => $ix } )

Sometimes the alternatives will return the parameters in a different order:

 state $signature = signature(
   multiple => [
     { positional => [ ArrayRef, Int ] },
     { positional => [ Int, ArrayRef ] },
   ],
 );
 my ( $xxx, $yyy ) = $signature->( @_ );

So how does your sub know whether $xxx or $yyy is the arrayref? One option is to use the ${^_TYPE_PARAMS_MULTISIG} global variable which will be set to the index of the signature which was used:

 my @results = $signature->( @_ );
 my ( $arr, $ix ) = ${^_TYPE_PARAMS_MULTISIG} == 1
   ? reverse( @results )
   : @results;

A neater solution is to use a goto_next coderef to re-order alternative signature results into your preferred order:

 state $signature = signature(
   multiple => [
     { positional => [ ArrayRef, Int ] },
     { positional => [ Int, ArrayRef ], goto_next => sub { reverse @_ } },
   ],
 );
 my ( $arr, $ix ) = $signature->( @_ );

While conceptally multiple is an arrayref of hashrefs, it is also possible to use arrayrefs in the arrayref.

 multiple => [
   [ ArrayRef, Int ],
   [ Int, ArrayRef ],
 ]

When an arrayref is used like that, it is a shortcut for a positional signature.

Coderefs may additionally be used:

 state $signature = signature(
   multiple => [
     [ ArrayRef, Int ],
     { positional => [ Int, ArrayRef ], goto_next => sub { reverse @_ } },
     sub { ... },
     sub { ... },
   ],
 );

The coderefs should be subs which return a list of parameters if they succeed and throw an exception if they fail.

The following signatures are equivalent:

 state $sig_1 = signature(
   multiple => [
     { method => 1, positional => [ ArrayRef, Int ] },
     { method => 1, positional => [ Int, ArrayRef ] },
   ],
 );
 
 state $sig_2 = signature(
   method   => 1,
   multiple => [
     { positional => [ ArrayRef, Int ] },
     { positional => [ Int, ArrayRef ] },
   ],
 );

The multiple option can also be abbreviated to multi.

So signature( multi => [...] ) can be used instead of the longer signature( multiple => [...] ). Three whole keystrokes saved!

(Note: in older releases of Type::Params, ${^_TYPE_PARAMS_MULTISIG} was called ${^TYPE_PARAMS_MULTISIG}. The latter name is deprecated, and support for it will be removed in a future release of Type::Params.)

message Str

Only used by multiple signatures. The error message to throw when no signatures match.

want_source Bool

Instead of returning a coderef, return Perl source code string. Handy for debugging.

want_details Bool

Instead of returning a coderef, return a hashref of stuff including the coderef. This is mostly for people extending Type::Params and I won't go into too many details about what else this hashref contains.

bless Bool|ClassName, class ClassName|ArrayRef, and constructor Str

Named parameters are usually returned as a blessed object:

 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature( named => [ num1 => Num, num2 => Num ] );
   my ( $arg ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   return $arg->num1 + $arg->num2;
 }

The class they are blessed into is one built on-the-fly by Type::Params. However, these three signature options allow you more control over that process.

Firstly, if you set bless => false and do not set class or constructor, then $arg will just be an unblessed hashref.

 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature(
     named        => [ num1 => Num, num2 => Num ],
     bless        => !!0,
   );
   my ( $arg ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   return $arg->{num1} + $arg->{num2};
 }

This is a good speed boost, but having proper methods for each named parameter is a helpful way to catch misspelled names.

If you wish to manually create a class instead of relying on Type::Params generating one on-the-fly, you can do this:

 package Params::For::AddNumbers {
   sub num1 { return $_[0]{num1} }
   sub num2 { return $_[0]{num2} }
   sub sum {
     my $self = shift;
     return $self->num1 + $self->num2;
   }
 }
 
 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature(
     named        => [ num1 => Num, num2 => Num ],
     bless        => 'Params::For::AddNumbers',
   );
   my ( $arg ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   return $arg->sum;
 }

Note that Params::For::AddNumbers here doesn't include a new method because Type::Params will directly do bless( $arg, $opts{bless} ).

If you want Type::Params to use a proper constructor, you should use the class option instead:

 package Params::For::AddNumbers {
   use Moo;
   has [ 'num1', 'num2' ] => ( is => 'ro' );
   sub sum {
     my $self = shift;
     return $self->num1 + $self->num2;
   }
 }
 
 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature(
     named        => [ num1 => Num, num2 => Num ],
     class        => 'Params::For::AddNumbers',
   );
   my ( $arg ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   return $arg->sum;
 }

If you wish to use a constructor named something other than new, then use:

 state $sig = signature(
   named        => [ num1 => Num, num2 => Num ],
   class        => 'Params::For::AddNumbers',
   constructor  => 'new_from_hashref',
 );

Or as a shortcut:

 state $sig = signature(
   named        => [ num1 => Num, num2 => Num ],
   class        => [ 'Params::For::AddNumbers', 'new_from_hashref' ],
 );

It is doubtful you want to use any of these options, except bless => false.

Parameter Options

In the parameter lists for the positional and named signature options, each parameter may be followed by a hashref of options specific to that parameter:

 signature(
   positional => [
     Int, \%options_for_first_parameter,
     Int, \%options_for_other_parameter,
   ],
   %more_options_for_signature,
 );

 signature(
   named => [
     foo => Int, \%options_for_foo,
     bar => Int, \%options_for_bar,
   ],
   %more_options_for_signature,
 );

The following options are supported for parameters.

optional Bool

An option called optional!

This makes a parameter optional:

 sub add_nums {
   state $sig = signature(
     positional => [
       Int,
       Int,
       Bool, { optional => !!1 },
     ],
   );
   
   my ( $num1, $num2, $debug ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   my $sum = $num1 + $num2;
   warn "$sum = $num1 + $num2" if $debug;
   
   return $sum;
 }
 
 add_nums( 2, 3, 1 );   # prints warning
 add_nums( 2, 3, 0 );   # no warning
 add_nums( 2, 3    );   # no warning

Types::Standard also provides a Optional parameterizable type which may be a neater way to do this:

 state $sig = signature(
   positional => [ Int, Int, Optional[Bool] ],
 );

In signatures with positional parameters, any optional parameters must be defined after non-optional parameters. The tail option provides a workaround for required parameters at the end of @_.

In signatures with named parameters, the order of optional and non-optional parameters is unimportant.

slurpy Bool

A signature may contain a single slurpy parameter, which mops up any other arguments the caller provides your function.

In signatures with positional parameters, slurpy params must always have some kind of ArrayRef or HashRef type constraint, must always appear at the end of the list of positional parameters, and they work like this:

 sub add_nums {
   state $sig = signature(
     positional => [
       Num,
       ArrayRef[Num], { slurpy => !!1 },
     ],
   );
   my ( $first_num, $other_nums ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   my $sum = $first_num;
   $sum += $_ for @$other_nums;
   
   return $sum;
 }
 
 say add_nums( 1 );            # says 1
 say add_nums( 1, 2 );         # says 3
 say add_nums( 1, 2, 3 );      # says 6
 say add_nums( 1, 2, 3, 4 );   # says 10

In signatures with named parameters, slurpy params must always have some kind of HashRef type constraint, and they work like this:

 use builtin qw( true false );
 
 sub process_data {
   state $sig = signature(
     method => true,
     named  => [
       input   => FileHandle,
       output  => FileHandle,
       flags   => HashRef[Bool], { slurpy => true },
     ],
   );
   my ( $self, $arg ) = @_;
   warn "Beginning data processing" if $arg->flags->{debug};
   
   ...;
 }
 
 $widget->process_data(
   input  => \*STDIN,
   output => \*STDOUT,
   debug  => true,
 );

The Slurpy type constraint from Types::Standard may be used as a shortcut to specify slurpy parameters:

 signature(
   positional => [ Num, Slurpy[ ArrayRef[Num] ] ],
 )

The type Slurpy[Any] is handled specially and treated as a slurpy ArrayRef in signatures with positional parameters, and a slurpy HashRef in signatures with named parameters, but has some additional optimizations for speed.

default CodeRef|ScalarRef|Ref|Str|Undef

A default may be provided for a parameter.

 state $check = signature(
   positional => [
     Int,
     Int, { default => "666" },
     Int, { default => "999" },
   ],
 );

Supported defaults are any strings (including numerical ones), undef, and empty hashrefs and arrayrefs. Non-empty hashrefs and arrayrefs are not allowed as defaults.

Alternatively, you may provide a coderef to generate a default value:

 state $check = signature(
   positional => [
     Int,
     Int, { default => sub { 6 * 111 } },
     Int, { default => sub { 9 * 111 } },
   ]
 );

That coderef may generate any value, including non-empty arrayrefs and non-empty hashrefs. For undef, simple strings, numbers, and empty structures, avoiding using a coderef will make your parameter processing faster.

Instead of a coderef, you can use a reference to a string of Perl source code:

 state $check = signature(
   positional => [
     Int,
     Int, { default => \ '6 * 111' },
     Int, { default => \ '9 * 111' },
   ],
 );

Defaults will be validated against the type constraint, and potentially coerced.

Any parameter with a default will automatically be optional.

Note that having any defaults in a signature (even if they never end up getting used) can slow it down, as Type::Params will need to build a new array instead of just returning @_.

coerce Bool

Speaking of which, the coerce option allows you to indicate that a value should be coerced into the correct type:

 state $sig = signature(
   positional => [
     Int,
     Int,
     Bool, { coerce => true },
   ],
 );

Setting coerce to false will disable coercion.

If coerce is not specified, so is neither true nor false, then coercion will be enabled if the type constraint has a coercion, and disabled otherwise.

Note that having any coercions in a signature (even if they never end up getting used) can slow it down, as Type::Params will need to build a new array instead of just returning @_.

clone Bool

If this is set to true, it will deep clone incoming values via dclone from Storable (a core module since Perl 5.7.3).

In the below example, $arr is a reference to a clone of @numbers, so pushing additional numbers to it leaves @numbers unaffected.

 sub foo {
   state $check = signature(
     positional => [
       ArrayRef, { clone => 1 }
     ],
   );
   my ( $arr ) = &$check;
   
   push @$arr, 4, 5, 6;
 }
 
 my @numbers = ( 1, 2, 3 );
 foo( \@numbers );
 
 print "@numbers\n";  ## 1 2 3

Note that cloning will significantly slow down your signature.

name Str

This overrides the name of a named parameter. I don't know why you would want to do that.

The following signature has two parameters: foo and bar. The name fool is completely ignored.

 signature(
   named => [
     fool   => Int, { name => 'foo' },
     bar    => Int,
   ],
 )

You can, however, also name positional parameters, which don't usually have names.

 signature(
   positional => [
     Int, { name => 'foo' },
     Int, { name => 'bar' },
   ],
 )

The names of positional parameters are not really used for anything at the moment, but may be incorporated into error messages or similar in the future.

getter Str

For signatures with named parameters, specifies the method name used to retrieve this parameter's value from the $arg object.

 sub process_data {
   state $sig = signature(
     method => true,
     named  => [
       input   => FileHandle,    { getter => 'in' },
       output  => FileHandle,    { getter => 'out' },
       flags   => HashRef[Bool], { slurpy => true },
     ],
   );
   my ( $self, $arg ) = @_;
   warn "Beginning data processing" if $arg->flags->{debug};
   
   my ( $in, $out ) = ( $arg->in, $arg->out );
   ...;
 }
 
 $widget->process_data(
   input  => \*STDIN,
   output => \*STDOUT,
   debug  => true,
 );

Ignored by signatures with positional parameters.

predicate Str

The $arg object provided by signatures with named parameters will also include "has" methods for any optional arguments. For example:

 state $sig = signature(
   method => true,
   named  => [
     input   => Optional[ FileHandle ],
     output  => Optional[ FileHandle ],
     flags   => Slurpy[ HashRef[Bool] ],
   ],
 );
 my ( $self, $arg ) = $sig->( @_ );
 
 if ( $self->has_input and $self->has_output ) {
   ...;
 }

Setting a predicate option allows you to choose a different name for this method.

It is also possible to set a predicate for non-optional parameters, which don't normally get a "has" method.

Ignored by signatures with positional parameters.

alias Str|ArrayRef[Str]

A list of alternative names for the parameter, or a single alternative name.

 sub add_numbers {
   state $sig = signature(
     named => [
       first_number   => Int, { alias => [ 'x' ] },
       second_number  => Int, { alias =>   'y'   },
     ],
   );
   my ( $arg ) = $sig->( @_ );
   
   return $arg->first_number + $arg->second_number;
 }
 
 say add_numbers( first_number => 40, second_number => 2 );  # 42
 say add_numbers( x            => 40, y             => 2 );  # 42
 say add_numbers( first_number => 40, y             => 2 );  # 42
 say add_numbers( first_number => 40, x => 1, y => 2 );      # dies!

Ignored by signatures with positional parameters.

strictness Bool|Str

Overrides the signature option strictness on a per-parameter basis.

signature_for $function_name => ( %spec )

Like signature, but instead of returning a coderef, wraps an existing function, so you don't need to deal with the mechanics of generating the signature at run-time, calling it, and extracting the returned values.

The following three examples are roughly equivalent:

 sub add_nums {
   state $signature = signature(
     positional => [ Num, Num ],
   );
   my ( $x, $y ) = $signature->( @_ );
   
   return $x + $y;
 }

Or:

 signature_for add_nums => (
   positional => [ Num, Num ],
 );
 
 sub add_nums {
   my ( $x, $y ) = @_;
   
   return $x + $y;
 }

Or since Perl 5.20:

 signature_for add_nums => (
   positional => [ Num, Num ],
 );
 
 sub add_nums ( $x, $y ) {
   return $x + $y;
 }

The signature_for keyword turns signature inside-out.

The same signature specification options are supported, with the exception of want_source and want_details which will not work.

If you are providing a signature for a sub in another package, then signature_for "Some::Package::some_sub" => ( ... ) will work, as will signature_for some_sub => ( package => "Some::Package", ... ). If method is true, then signature_for will respect inheritance when determining which sub to wrap. signature_for will not be able to find lexical subs, so use signature within the sub instead.

The goto_next option is what signature_for uses to "connect" the signature to the body of the sub, so do not use it unless you understand the consequences and want to override the normal behaviour.

If the sub being wrapped cannot be found, then signature_for will usually throw an error. If you want it to "work" in this situation, use the fallback option. fallback => \&alternative_coderef_to_wrap or fallback => 1 will instead wrap a different coderef if the original cannot be found. fallback => 1 is a shortcut for fallback => sub {}. An example where this might be useful is if you're adding signatures to methods which are inherited from a parent class, but you are not 100% confident will exist (perhaps dependent on the version of the parent class).

 signature_for add_nums => (
   positional => [ Num, Num ],
   fallback   => sub { $_[0] + $_[1] },
 );

signature_for( \@functions, %opts ) is a useful shortcut if you have multiple functions with the same signature.

Legacy API

The following functions were the API prior to Type::Params v2. They are still supported, but their use is now discouraged.

If you don't provide an import list at all, you will import compile and compile_named:

 use Type::Params;

This does the same:

  use Type::Params -v1;

The following exports compile, compile_named, and compile_named_oo:

 use Type::Params -compile;

The following exports wrap_subs and wrap_methods:

 use Type::Params -wrap;

compile( @pos_params )

Equivalent to signature( positional => \@pos_params ).

compile( \%spec, @pos_params ) is equivalent to signature( %spec, positional => \@pos_params ).

compile_named( @named_params )

Equivalent to signature( bless => 0, named => \@named_params ).

compile_named( \%spec, @named_params ) is equivalent to signature( bless => 0, %spec, named => \@named_params ).

compile_named_oo( @named_params )

Equivalent to signature( bless => 1, named => \@named_params ).

compile_named_oo( \%spec, @named_params ) is equivalent to signature( bless => 1, %spec, named => \@named_params ).

validate( \@args, @pos_params )

Equivalent to signature( positional => \@pos_params )->( @args ).

The validate function has never been recommended, and is not exported unless requested by name.

validate_named( \@args, @named_params )

Equivalent to signature( bless => 0, named => \@named_params )->( @args ).

The validate_named function has never been recommended, and is not exported unless requested by name.

wrap_subs( func1 => \@params1, func2 => \@params2, ... )

Equivalent to:

 signature_for func1 => ( positional => \@params1 );
 signature_for func2 => ( positional => \@params2 );

One slight difference is that instead of arrayrefs, you can provide the output of one of the compile functions:

 wrap_subs( func1 => compile_named( @params1 ) );

wrap_subs is not exported unless requested by name.

wrap_methods( func1 => \@params1, func2 => \@params2, ... )

Equivalent to:

 signature_for func1 => ( method => 1, positional => \@params1 );
 signature_for func2 => ( method => 1, positional => \@params2 );

One slight difference is that instead of arrayrefs, you can provide the output of one of the compile functions:

  wrap_methods( func1 => compile_named( @params1 ) );

wrap_methods is not exported unless requested by name.

multisig( @alternatives )

Equivalent to:

  signature( multiple => \@alternatives )

multisig( \%spec, @alternatives ) is equivalent to signature( %spec, multiple => \@alternatives ).

Type Constraints

Although Type::Params is not a real type library, it exports two type constraints. Their use is no longer recommended.

Invocant

Type::Params exports a type Invocant on request. This gives you a type constraint which accepts classnames and blessed objects.

 use Type::Params qw( compile Invocant );
 
 sub my_method {
   state $check = signature(
     method     => Invocant,
     positional => [ ArrayRef, Int ],
   );
   my ($self_or_class, $arr, $ix) = $check->(@_);
   
   return $arr->[ $ix ];
 }

Invocant is not exported unless requested by name.

Recommendation: use Defined from Types::Standard instead.

ArgsObject

Type::Params exports a parameterizable type constraint ArgsObject. It accepts the kinds of objects returned by signature checks for named parameters.

  package Foo {
    use Moo;
    use Type::Params 'ArgsObject';
    
    has args => (
      is  => 'ro',
      isa => ArgsObject['Bar::bar'],
    );
  }
  
  package Bar {
    use Types::Standard -types;
    use Type::Params 'signature';
    
    sub bar {
      state $check = signature(
        named => [
          xxx => Int,
          yyy => ArrayRef,
        ],
      );
      my ( $got ) = $check->( @_ );
      
      return 'Foo'->new( args => $got );
    }
  }
  
  Bar::bar( xxx => 42, yyy => [] );

The parameter "Bar::bar" refers to the caller when the check is compiled, rather than when the parameters are checked.

ArgsObject is not exported unless requested by name.

Recommendation: use Object from Types::Standard instead.

Environment

PERL_TYPE_PARAMS_XS

Affects the building of accessors for $arg objects. If set to true, will use Class::XSAccessor. If set to false, will use pure Perl. If this environment variable does not exist, will use Class::XSAccessor.

If Class::XSAccessor is not installed or is too old, pure Perl will always be used as a fallback.

Bugs

Please report any bugs to https://github.com/tobyink/p5-type-tiny/issues.

See Also

The Type::Tiny homepage.

Type::Tiny, Type::Coercion, Types::Standard.